Amid growing challenges of global warming and climate challenges, the G20 leaders in New Delhi Declaration on Saturday expressed their commitment to pursue environmentally sustainable and inclusive economic growth and development in an integrated, holistic and balanced manner. The Declaration said that they recognise that limiting global warming to 1.5°C requires rapid, deep and sustained reductions in global GHG emissions of 43% by 2030 relative to the 2019 levels.
The Declaration Reads:
Green Development Pact for a Sustainable Future
Recognising that the prosperity and well-being of present and future generations depends on our current development and other policy choices and actions, we resolve to pursue environmentally sustainable and inclusive economic growth and development in an integrated, holistic and balanced manner.
We commit to urgently accelerate our actions to address environmental crises and challenges including climate change. We recognize that the impacts of climate change are being experienced worldwide, particularly by the poorest and the most vulnerable, including in LDCs and SIDS. Mindful of our leadership role, we reaffirm our steadfast commitments, in pursuit of the objective of UNFCCC, to tackle climate change by strengthening the full and effective implementation of the Paris Agreement and its temperature goal, reflecting equity and the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in light of different national circumstances.
We note with concern that global ambition and implementation to address climate change remain insufficient to achieve the temperature goal of the Paris Agreement to hold the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre- industrial levels, and pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.
We highlight the importance of ambitious action on all pillars of the Paris Agreement, taking into account the best available science. Noting the IPCC assessments, that the impacts of climate change will be much lower at a temperature increase of 1.5°C compared with 2°C, we reiterate our resolve to pursue further efforts to limit the increase to 1.5°C. This will require meaningful and effective actions and commitment by all countries, taking into account different approaches, through the development of clear national pathways that align long term ambition with short and medium-term goals, and with international cooperation and support, including finance and technology and sustainable and responsible consumption and production as critical enablers, in the context of sustainable development. We recognize that limiting global warming to 1.5°C requires rapid, deep and sustained reductions in global GHG emissions of 43% by 2030 relative to the 2019 levels.
We also take note of the finding of the IPCC AR6 Synthesis Report, based on global modelled pathways and assumptions, stating that “Global GHG emissions are projected to peak between 2020 and at the latest before 2025 in global modelled pathways that limit warming to 1.5°C with no or limited overshoot and in those that limit warming to 2°C and assume immediate action.” This does not imply peaking in all countries within this timeframe; timeframes for peaking may be shaped by sustainable development, poverty eradication needs, equity, and in line with different national circumstances. We further recognize that technology development and transfer on voluntary and mutually agreed terms, capacity building and financing can support countries in this regard.
We urge all countries that have not yet aligned their NDCs with the temperature goal of the Paris Agreement, to revisit and strengthen the 2030 targets in their NDCs, as necessary, by the end of 2023, taking into account different national circumstances, and we welcome those who have already done so. We recall the nationally determined nature of NDCs and Article 4.4 of the Paris Agreement, which provides that “Developed country Parties should continue taking the lead by undertaking economy-wide absolute emission reduction targets. Developing country Parties should continue enhancing their mitigation efforts, and are encouraged to move over time towards economy-wide emission reduction or limitation targets in the light of different national circumstances.”
In this context, we commend those countries whose NDCs include economy-wide targets covering all GHGs, and others are encouraged to include such economy-wide targets in their upcoming NDC cycle(s), in the light of different national circumstances. We will contribute to a successful conclusion of the first global stocktake at COP28 in Dubai, that drives enhanced climate action across mitigation, adaptation, and means of implementation and support. We reiterate our commitment to achieve global net zero GHG emissions/carbon neutrality by or around mid-century, while taking into account the latest scientific developments and in line with different national circumstances, taking into account different approaches including the Circular Carbon Economy, socio- economic, technological, and market development, and promoting the most efficient solutions.